Engaging communities towards sustained indicator development, monitoring and evaluation of MPAs in the central Philippines.


  • First impressions matter: When engaging local communities in the monitoring and evaluation  (M&E) of no(take marine protected areas (MPAs), marine resource managers must first build trust  and develop relationships.
  • Communities with a history of MPA development and/or an active village council (or similar  grassroots organization) tend to be more easily engaged in M&E activities than those without. 
  • Women can play an important role in M&E initiatives, and gender must be factored into the  program design to ensure equal opportunities to participate.